It is a warm “summer” day, even if fall has arrived. While out on the patio enjoying the warm temperature, I noticed several patches of pine resin that were gathering the fallen scales of pine cones in their viscous, gooey puddles. Why, I wondered, are they oozing sap in the fall? Then I remembered that evergreen trees, unlike deciduous trees, retain sap in their evergreen needles (modified leaves) all year. The resin acts like an antifreeze to prevent the needles from being damaged by frost.